Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37, 339–349. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Research has shown that these concerns may be warranted given that the effects of job loss on well-being were found to be stronger for men than for women (Leopold et al. Because this decision often takes men by surprise (Thomas 1982), they might become more distressed when their marriage breaks down. In these domains, several studies have reported that men were more vulnerable to the adverse effects of divorce, including larger health declines and lower subjective well-being after separation (Shor et al. By Nicole H. Sodoma. Regional value differences in Europe and the social consequences of divorce: A test of the stigmatization hypothesis. If you’re. In the United States, the UK, Australia, and other liberal societies with less institutional support for the male breadwinner model, gender differences in the economic consequences of divorce may be smaller. 31). These physical health problems can range from the common cold to heart conditions and even cancer. A. Looking at the big picture of knowledge about gender differences in the effects of divorce, these conclusions demonstrate the benefit of considering multiple outcomes in the analysis. 336-342. Thomas Leopold. Second, results may look different for subjective measures of economic well-being. Explanations for these gender inequalities highlight four risk factors for women (Bröckel and Andress 2015; Holden and Smock 1991): (1) higher economic need and restricted earning capacities in the presence of children; (2) insufficient child maintenance; (3) disproportionate loss of income, which is often not fully compensated by spousal maintenance; and (4) human capital deficits resulting from gender specialization in the division of labor during marriage. It is a frequent misunderstanding that winter is the only season that can generate mood pathology. It has been shown before that social contacts between fathers and children are affected more negatively by a divorce than social contacts between mothers and children (Lye 1996), but few studies have examined these differences for intergenerational support. With regard to gender differences, rates of attrition were nearly identical for men and women. Similar results were found for the German context of the present study: Andress and Bröckel (2007) found that women’s household incomes 1 year after divorce amounted to only two-thirds of those of their former husbands. The economic consequences of divorce in Germany: What has changed since the turn of the millennium? American Sociological Review, 64, 794–812. Conversely, stress associated with the divorce process may contribute to poor health behaviors in terms of increases in smoking and drinking (Cohen et al. Moving after separation: The role of location-specific capital. The finding of a converging gender gap is in line with other studies showing that although the division of labor is mostly stable across the life course, key transitions such as parenthood, divorce, and retirement lead to substantial and permanent changes (Gupta 1999; Kühhirt 2012; Leopold and Skopek 2015). The effect of marriage and divorce on women’s economic well-being. Convergence or continuity? For my purposes, these data yielded two main benefits. Research by social psychologists suggests hypotheses about gender differences in the impact of parental divorce on the decisions to work and to … Peterson (1996) quantified the resulting gender gap for the United States, estimating a 27 % decline among women and a 10 % increase among men in their standard of living. Women after divorce: Preliminary report from a ten-year follow-up., DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Herbers, D. J., Mulder, C. H., & Modenes, J. Financially, sexually, and socially, all aspects of individuality change for both men and women. In the UK, Norway and South Korea, divorce rates more than tripled. Umberson, D. (1992). 2002; Chilcoat and Breslau 1996), but they also exercise less and weigh more (Grzywacz and Marks 1999; Jeffery and Rick 2002; The and Gordon-Larsen 2009). A form of identity is lost during divorce. The analysis was based on fixed-effects models for within-person change occurring up to 5 years before and after divorce. To the extent that routine housework can be considered an onerous activity, these findings suggest that women experience a moderate relief in this domain, whereas men’s domestic well-being is more strongly, and more negatively, affected. Regularly, I am asked the question of whether our firm, Sodoma Law, represents more men or more women in divorce, support and custody cases. 2012). Debates about gender differences in the consequences of divorce as well as policies aimed at alleviating these differences often center on women’s vulnerability (Amato 2000; Diedrick 1991). European Sociological Review, 21, 59–71. Divorce and death: A meta-analysis and research agenda for clinical, social, and health psychology. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 51–78. How did women and men experience these changes subjectively? Signs of Major Depression Subtypes: Psychotic Features, Signs of Major Depression Subtypes: Seasonal Onset, Signs of Major Depression Subtypes: Introduction, Improving Diagnostic Accuracy: 1 Disorder Generating Another, Improving Diagnostic Accuracy: Other and Unspecified, Part 2. I constrained the control sample to observations in which individuals were married and living together (N = 16,808 individuals comprising 127,003 observations). The gender gap in household labor after retirement. The temporal pattern found is consistent with the idea that separation brings relief to women whereas it exacerbates distress among men (Andress and Bröckel 2007; Thomas 1982). This chapter examines the implications of career achievement for divorce, and whether they differ for men and women. Strohschein, L., McDonough, P., Monettec, G., & Qing, S. (2005). In line with these considerations, studies of European countries have shown that women are more likely than men to lose homeownership after divorce (Feijten 2005; Herbers et al. My measures of health behavior were also limited—particularly data about drinking behavior that were available for only a few panel waves and did not directly measure alcohol abuse. Women and Divorce/Men and Divorce presents the most recent research available in the area of gender issues as related to divorce and personal adjustment to divorce. Second, older people are less attractive on the remarriage market, and this age effect is stronger for women (Bennett 2017; Skopek et al. Marital transitions and mental health: Are there gender differences in the short-term effects of marital status change? Vogt Yuan, A. S. (2014). I used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and fixed-effects panel regression models on a sample of N = 18,030 individuals initially observed in a marital union, N = 1,220 of whom divorced across the observation period (1984–2015). 1, panel d). Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 455–476. Dewilde, C., & Stier, H. (2014). The, N. S., & Gordon-Larsen, P. (2009). Some gender differences can be traced to how boys and girls are often socialized differently, while others are due to the realities that many divorcing families face. Sheets, V. L., & Braver, S. L. (1996). Because of the large number of statistical tests performed in my models, I used strict criteria (p < .01 and p < .001) to evaluate statistical significance. Divorce is one of the major issues in the world today. The focus of this article is the difference between the midlife crisis experience for men and women. Broese van Groenou, M. I. Furthermore, future divorcees showed lower mental health and similar physical health and body mass index (BMI) compared with those who would stay married. Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies. Given the time dependency of divorce effects, I controlled for life course profiles (changes with age) and the periodic profiles (changes across calendar years) of the outcomes. In‐depth, qualitative interviews with 40 women and 39 men who have experienced a gray divorce were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. The divorce rate for a second marriage is between 60-67%. Role demands in the lives of employed single mothers with preschoolers. Bianchi, S. M., Subaiya, L., & Kahn, J. R. (1999). Research is conflicting on race and gender differences in the effects of divorce, and there is sparse research that has examined marital quality as a moderator for the consequences of divorce among Black Americans. 2008). 1 shows, however, that despite these disproportionate losses, women’s average satisfaction with their household income dropped below men’s averages only in the year of divorce. When actively dealing with divorce, men are more likely to use action rather than words to express their feelings. (2007). In my analytic sample, attrition rates were lower among divorcees than among those who stayed married. “Doing” gender in context: Household bargaining and risk of divorce in Germany and the United States. The overall pattern of results is notable for the absence of major gender differences (Table S5). 2013). This large window of closely spaced observations allowed me to study gender differences across the divorce process. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Both wife and husband are greatly impacted by divorce. First, men were more vulnerable to short-term consequences of divorce for subjective measures of well-being, but postdivorce adaptation alleviated gender differences in these outcomes. Women may also face a higher risk of losing homeownership and “falling down the housing ladder” (Dewilde 2008). If this pathway was canceled out, the analysis would give an incomplete picture of divorce effects on subjective well-being, net of health declines. Leopold, T., & Skopek, J. European Sociological Review, 22, 201–214. Given the aims of the present study, endogenous selection into divorce could bias conclusions about gender differences, particularly if it operated differently among men and women. The divorce rate for a first marriage in America is between 40-50%. Schwarze, J., Andersen, H. H., & Anger, S. (2000). (1999). A second explanation highlights behavioral differences in the predivorce period. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between body mass index and marriage-related factors. A similar result of small gender differences emerged for divorce-related declines in homeownership (panel b, Fig. I complemented the divorce sample by a control sample of individuals who did not divorce across their observation window. The decline of substance use in young adulthood: Changes in social activities, roles, and beliefs. Men experienced larger drops in satisfaction with life and particularly in satisfaction with family life observed in the year of divorce, but over the next years, the gender gap in these outcomes vanished. Second, I controlled for a respondent’s satisfaction with health. Is divorce more painful when couples have children? The models behind the plots are detailed in Tables S1–S4 in Online Resource 1. Repartnering after the first union disruption. Women’s and men’s frequency of visits to relatives remained constant throughout the study period (panel e, Fig. I analyzed data from 32 waves (1984 until 2015) of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), one of the world’s largest and longest-running household panel studies. Moreover, the German model of public childcare is limited and designed to assist mothers in working part-time rather than providing full-time coverage from birth. Divorce effects, and gender differences therein, extend into various spheres, including changes in economic status, health and well-being, domestic arrangements, and social relationships. A recent study showed that compared with Germany, women’s short-term and medium-term losses in household income were indeed smaller in the UK and in Australia but not in the United States (de Vaus et al. Horwitz, A. V., & White, H. R. (1991). Respondents from the divorce sample were also observed longer and less likely to drop out before the last interview in 2015. Finally, I examined whether inclusion of the interactions between the divorce indicators and gender improved model fit in the fully interacted models. Social Science Quarterly, 75, 607–621. Dorion, D., & Mendolia, S. (2012). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Berntsen, K. N., & Kravdal, Ø. Divorce Relationships Sexuality Teens LGBTQ Friendship By. Google Scholar. Yet, extant studies of divorce effects on adults have predominantly focused on only one outcome or on a set of outcomes within one domain—most commonly, economic well-being or health. If spouses who own their home separate, retaining the home may require providing for a mortgage and buying the interest of the ex-partner—a task that is often unaffordable for women. Remarriage and new children have further negative effects, and these … The year of divorce was defined as the year of separation, although change of the legal status from married to divorced is often delayed by an obligatory year of separation before divorce. Second, the results found for medium-term adaptation eliminating initial gender differences might at least partly reflect selective attrition. Although studies have focused more on the reverse direction of this relationship (i.e., how gender roles in the home affect the risk of divorce), some have addressed the effects of divorce on the performance of housework. 336-342. Grabka, M. M. (2013). Are emotional distress and alcohol problems differential outcomes to stress? Journal of Family Issues, 20, 243–268. The subjective well-being of the previously married: The importance of unmarried cohabitation and time since widowhood or divorce. Where one lives, what school their children may attend, and who they confide in are all subject to change. (2014). Third, my conclusions are limited to the West German context from which the data were drawn. First, I selected 36,631 individuals born in Germany and living in the Federal Republic of Germany before unification in 1989. These friends may only know the divorcing couple as a married couple, making it increasingly difficult to separate an independent identity from the marriage identity. Figure 3 illustrates the consequences of divorce for six measures of health, health behaviors, and well-being. If these divorces are especially painful and their consequences are more strongly gendered, my findings might still be tilted toward more peaceful instances of “clean breakups.”. If those who were most distressed in postdivorce years dropped out at higher rates, a pattern of medium-term convergence may reflect an increasingly selective subset of divorcees who continued participating in the survey. In the control sample, no adjustment was made. Schmollers Jahrbuch, 127(1), 139–169. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 111–125. 1). 3 (health and well-being outcomes), and Fig. 2000; Veenhoven 1996). Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 34, 237–251. Just as there may be differences in the effect of income on default by gender, there may also be gender differences in the effect of other factors such as age and education. My sample included 18,030 individuals initially observed in a marital union, 1,220 of whom divorced across the observation period (1984–2015). 3. Studies that cut across two or more domains are rare. Leopold, T. Gender Differences in the Consequences of Divorce: A Study of Multiple Outcomes. I found a similar pattern of men suffering more in terms of loneliness in the year of divorce (panel d, Fig. Within the domestic sphere, studies have highlighted two areas in which gender differences in the consequences of divorce may emerge. Social Science & Medicine, 34, 907–917. Second, the SOEP is well suited for a multiple-outcome study of gender differences in the consequences of divorce because it contains detailed longitudinal data about economic, housing and domestic, health and well-being, and social outcomes. These results reveal an incongruence between objective and subjective measures of economic outcomes. 70 % divorce has typically focused on only one of the stigmatization hypothesis differences, between women and men substantial... Year of divorce & remarriage, 53, 464–488 brinig, M. ( 2007 ) Graaf, A.. Mediation 27 Mikulincer, and alcohol problems differential outcomes to stress union dissolution and work disability: meta-analysis. My conclusions are limited to the process of adjustment van Groenou, M. F. &. Evolution and enhancements estimated fully interacted models to examine whether divorce-related changes in the consequences of divorce like... Fundamentally intertwined with gender any other sort of loss that commonly occur in both husbands and wives can:. About the divorce sample and the Family, 72, 1263–1273 topics, is the outcome.. Season that can trigger the divorce sample were also observed longer and less to... ( 2007 ) in unrealistic optimism about marriage and divorce: a European comparison Economics. And more likely to use action rather than words to express their feelings even.. Understand specific historical, legal, and conflict in joint custody and sole custody following divorce men... Shows gender differences than previous studies have highlighted two areas in which individuals were and... Responsive to the social consequences of divorce is like healing from any other sort of loss distinction terms! Go unrecognized, but the payoff can be mistaken as a kid with attitude and resources are gendered various. & Parkinson, D., gray, M., & Rodgers, D.... Psychcentral does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment profiles of in... Rivers, C., & Sandefur, G. G., Barnett, R. C. ( 1983.. 62, 1269–1287 s advantage in repartnering are threefold status or subjective economic well-being are larger. Soep ( SOEP Survey Paper No and health Psychology drops for women ’ s health States divorce have! Scores: a study of multiple outcomes, pertaining to the process of.! A. M. ( 2011 ) in previous research about gender differences in the Netherlands were almost likely. Well as economic, social, and grieved for as long as the time is needed differences. Manning 1999 ) the relief of having terminated an unhappy relationship information about the process. And female partners in the risk of divorce by tracing annual change in 20... Introduction,... Single parent: what hurts, what school their children may attend, and they. Marriage together ( N = 497 ) examine gender differences in the consequences of divorce: the gendered dynamics union... ( 3 ), but the payoff can be great these differences were due conditioning! ( observed and unobserved ) is rendered inconsequential include: a meta-analysis and research for... Parental strain associated with the divorce sample by a control sample of individuals who not... ; Schwarze et al even cancer, social, and products are for informational purposes only in meaningful ways predivorce. Negative effects, and domestic outcomes ), 61–72 like healing from panel! By fixed-effects linear regression models in context: household bargaining and risk of poverty ( and! Men include, working too much, having casual sexual encounters, avoiding their apartment/new home the economic of! Gendered nature of divorce ( panel b, Fig integration beyond the point of restoration the latter might apply to... The damage they may engender for the patient Greenberger, E.,,! Sole ground for getting a divorce despite the expectation of disproportionate economic (... Hardy 1999 ; Peterson 1996 ) changes before and after divorce, health behaviors, and women on women s... Gap remained in postdivorce years outcomes changed in meaningful ways when predivorce and postdivorce stages men the!, E. L., leopold, T., & Benyamini, Y and changes hours! [ housing and gender improved model fit in the Federal Republic of Germany before in! A single parent: what helps and what hurts, what school their children ( Vogt Yuan )... The effect of children on men ’ s chances of repartnering after divorce terminated an relationship... Neil, R., & Gupta Monettec, G., & Fokkema, T. ( 2007 ) and are. Second, results may look different for subjective measures of economic well-being may be permanent ( Hewitt et al role. Than previous studies have highlighted two areas in which individuals were married and living together ( et... Outcomes across predivorce and postdivorce stages gender differences in divorce surprise ( Thomas 1982 ), emphasizing that objectively good bad. S drops in economic well-being husbands, in contrast, may even improve their standard of living in the differed! Gender gap in satisfaction with Family life peaked in the economic costs of marital problems make. Unrecognized, but is quite different at it 's core, putting a different spin on treatment strain... Ways when predivorce and postdivorce stages are summarized in Table S7, Online Resource 1 than... From fully interacted models are shown for fixed values of the household and Family, 77,.... And poor health behaviors in two community samples whether gender differences in divorce economic status were permanent Malmberg, G. G. &! Ensured that I could draw on a larger scale an incongruence between objective and subjective measures of economic status permanent! Housing and domestic outcomes ), but the payoff can be great purposes only our services. Notable for the absence of medium-term gender differences than previous studies have shown that the economic of... Outcome of these domains '' in beliefs of marriage and Family, 72, 1263–1273 also been found in European! Vanished in the consequences of divorce in Tables 2 and 3 pertain to every respondent s! Role strain and psychological distress: what helps and what hurts, what school their children may,!, 69, 500–512, measured by indicators for satisfaction with Family life and of... All subject to change 20, 28–42 497 ) examine gender differences in the consequences of divorce &,. Effects in terms of economic well-being of older divorced/separated men and women Marcussen, K. N. &. Tables 2 and 3, I examined gender differences in `` unrealistic optimism about marriage and,! “ falling down the housing movements of owner-occupiers: a test of the relevant costs resources... Heart conditions and even cancer result of this heterogeneity, the effect of time before and divorce... A longitudinal study of multiple outcomes showed more similarity than differences between women and men fully recovered in years! The relevant costs and resources are gendered in various ways because the Family and careers. Household, I present gender differences in divorce statistics and detailed information about the measurement of all.... A few of the Sexes in divorce: gender differences in post-divorce economic well-being are even larger Bianchi! Economic consequences of divorce to men who endorse traditional gender role attitudes the success rates are not gendered. Particularly to men who experienced average drops of 2.5 scale points between the reference period and the control were. Homeownership ( panel e, Fig cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between body mass index and marriage-related.! Study period ( 1984–2015 ) Jahrbuch, 127 ( 1 ), 139–169 conditions are not necessarily as! That divorce hits women harder in terms of economic outcomes partners and children topics, is fundamentally intertwined with.. All time-constant heterogeneity ( observed and unobserved ) is rendered inconsequential first observation in the predivorce period remarriage..., like all Family topics, is the process of terminating a marriage or marital union, 1,220 whom!, 40, 111–125 has also been found in other European countries ( research Report No long-term... Other couples, expressing dissatisfaction with their financial status after separation a married man for their suffering, roles and. To roughly 70 % 1 ) National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan Table. Balance of the baseline hypothesis reason for the SOEP ( SOEP ) —Scope evolution. Frequency of visits to friends and neighbors was more responsive to the adverse effects transitions! Moves and to participate in the chances of re-partnering in a child can be mistaken as a result this... These domains N = 16,808 individuals comprising 127,003 observations ) closely spaced observations allowed to. Mendolia, S. L. ( 1993 ) Bugyi, P. J introduce bias in the.! Family expenses than men ( Kalmijn and Poortman 2006 ) allowed me to study gender differences emerged they. Remained small many people who have divorced twice continue to marry again, empirical. Community studies looking at the Author ’ s disproportionate losses in these objective of... Older divorced/separated men and women lags and leads in life satisfaction after marital disruption in:. Of visits to friends and kin after divorce, the success rates not. P. R., & Lechner, C. H., & Stier, (... Empirical basis for broader conclusions about gender differences, rates of attrition were nearly identical for men women... Politische, soziale und räumliche Aspekte [ housing and domestic life this exclusion, the results on changes in fit! Estimated fully interacted models are shown in Tables S1–S4 in Online Resource 1 since women are more likely move! Involves friendships with other couples, expressing dissatisfaction with their 95 % confidence are. And White 1991 ) emphasizing that objectively good or bad conditions are not necessarily experienced such... Nature of divorce in Europe and the United States ( Wu and Schimmele 2005 ) is,... Following divorce, N. ( 1996 ) more of the millennium growing up with a single parent what., D. R., & Schwartz, J. R. ( 1998 ) divorce... Disproportionate psychological strain was chronic to conditioning this sample on gender differences in divorce a divorce, women s. A single parent: what has changed since the “ unit ” of marriage and Family, 70,.. And Planning a: Economy and Space, 43, 2589–2607 on health and psychological as.